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Reference sources for invertebrates include Carlton (2007) and Morris et al. (1980); for seaweeds Gabrielson et al. (2004) and Abbott & Hollenberg (1976); for fishes Eschmeyer et al. (1983).  The website Zipcode Zoo ( was also used for updates of higher level classification.

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Abbott, I.A. and G.J. Hollenberg. 1976. Marine algae of California. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, CA.

Carlton, J.T., ed. 2007. The Light & Smith Manual: Intertidal invertebrates from central California to Oregon, 4th ed. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley CA.

Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald, and H. Hammann. 1983. Field guide to Pacific Coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston MA.

Gabrielson, P.W., T.R. Widdowson, and S.C. Lindstrom. 2004. Keys to the seaweeds and seagrasses of Oregon and California north of Pt. Conception. Phycological contribution No. 6, Dept of Botany, Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.

Morris, R.H., D.P. Abbott, and E.C. Haderlie. 1980. Intertidal invertebrates of California. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, CA.

Page created by J.M. Watanabe
All images copyright James Watanabe unless otherwise indicated
Contact:  watanabe_at_stanford_dot_edu                                                                                                                                   Last  update: 18 March 2009